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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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ALASKAN GLACIER STUDIES
valley glaciers larger than moat of those in the Alps and there is, in addition, a very large unknown area.
The front of Hubbard Glacier, measured in a straight line, is 8J to 4 miles wide (PL XXXVI); but since the ice cliff has a sinuous form, with projections in the center, it is in reality much longer than this, the total length being between 4$ and 5 miles. This cliff rises between 250 and 800 feet above the water and extends an unknown distance below it. One usually needs to wait but a few moments to hear from some part of the cliff the thunderlike rumble or roar which is the first announcement of an
FIG 6.   TED Lowxra POHTION OF THE HTJHBABD GLACIBB, WITH THKBJH GLACIERS OF THE Swiss ALPS SXJPHHIMPOSHD UPON IT.
AH four glaciers are drawn upon the same scale, those from Switzerland being shown from the snowfields to the end of the ice tongue. The contrast of width and length of these glaciers in Switzerland and in Alaska is notable.
iceberg fall, followed a few moments later by the appearance of a great swell which, on reaching the shore, forms a line of white breakers even at a distance of several miles from the ice cliff. By watching the ice cliff, one may see the huge masses fall from the ice front and a fountain of water dash perhaps even to the top of the glacier, and then, in a few seconds, hear the report which the rending of the glacier sends out. One is fascinated by the performance; sometimes it is only a small piece that falls and then a sharp single report, like the crack of a pistol, goes through the air; again a part of the front crumbles and the down-sliding ice, broken into small pieces, seems from a distance like a fountain of water while the report is only a low rumble; at other times huge masses break away, forming large icebergs, and the noise then produced is like the heavy